Let's start with Time since that is one we see often. Time is one of the basic fabrics of paradox space, the other being space. Every successful session must have a Hero of Time. Doc Scratch says so himself. The Hero of Time is also in charge of the game's emergency reset. The Time player's abilities seem to include being able to hop around in time and, depending on the class, stop it around others. Time players also have a thing with death.
Next is Space, the other basic fabric of paradox space. The Hero of Space has the Forge located on their Land and are usually in charge of breeding the Genesis Frog. The Space player's abilities include being able to resize objects and change their velocity, and just about anything else involving the Laws of Physics. Namely breaking them. Space is thought of being related to Life and creation, as opposed to death which is Time's thing. All of the Space players have had their dream selves awoken before enter the Medium, have been female, are associated with green in some way (counteracting Time's red), and have been Prospit dreamers. The known Heroes of Space are Jade, the Witch of Space, Kanaya, the Sylph of Space, Porrim, the Maid of Space, and Calliope, the Muse of Space.
After that is Void, the 'essence of lacking or nothingness' and the 'obfuscation of knowledge or it's outright destruction'. It is the antithesis to Light. Void players have the ability to go unnoticed by other players and to create something out of nothing. Roxy has the ability to become invisible and Equius is shielded from Doc Scratch's omniscience. Void players may also be connect to the Furthest Ring, which has been mentioned as the void. This would explain Rose's screen going black when she goes grimdark. Two Void players use fistkind strife secibus. This would make sense as Fistkind is the lack of a weapon. The known Heroes of Void are Roxy, the Rogue of Void, Equius, the Heir of Void, and Horuss, the Page of Void.
Light is another important aspect. Light presides over luck and good fortune, which we can obviously see with Vriska. Two Heroes of Light have been able to see into a magic cue ball, which might mean that Light is the knowledge that counteracts Void. Aranea would back this up as she can heal people by helping them look at things honestly. Light players also have a thing for history and discovery. Two of them enjoy forcing audiences to listen to long winded stories while the other is a treasure hunter. This also counteracts Void as Void obscures information and is ignored. The known Heroes of Light are Rose, the Seer of Light, Vriska, the Thief of Light, and Aranea, the Sylph of Light.
Next up is Mind, my personal favorite aspect. Mind relates to thoughts and decisions of an individual and the results of those decisions. Heroes of Mind have the ability to communicate with the otherwise undetectable dream splinters which are created from dream bubbles. Mind is the antithesis of Heart as Mind resides over logic and reasoning. Unfortunately there isn't much to be said about Mind as there hasn't really been much with the Mind players. The known Heroes of Mind are Terezi, the Seer of Mind, and Latula, the Knight of Mind.
Then there's Heart. Heart is comparable to 'Soul' or essence of being. Heroes of Heart tend to lead a path for themselves, however the aspect may cause splintering in the Hero. This does include Nepeta, though the splintering was in others rather than herself. For example, as Equius's moirail, she was able to keep him subdued otherwise he would have been worse that he was as one of the most powerful players in his session. Heart may be associated with motivation, which would explain the Heroes of Hearts interest in shipping. In a sense, Heart could also have to do with 'personality' and what makes a person who they are, namely their likes and dislikes. The known Heroes of Heart are Dirk, the Prince of Heart, Nepeta, the Rogue of Heart, and Meulin, the Mage of Heart.
And Rage, which can be an extremely powerful aspect. Wrath is a deadly sin after all. Rage could also have to do with sanity and madness. I say this because, look at Gamzee. He went from a mild mannered stoner to totally batsh.t with a flip of a switch. Of course that could just be him being a high blood. It is appearent however that Heroes of Rage have a control over negitive emotions. Kurloz ships black quadrant romance while Gamzee causes Rage in Terezi, making them kismisses. The known Heroes of Rage are Gamzee, the Bard of Rage, and Kurloz, the Prince of Rage.
Hope is another aspect that can be very powerful. Caliborn states that hope has 'unparalleled power'. Hope seems to embody it's literal meaning and certain holy powers. Eridan's 'white science' is actually his aspect, Hope and is described as 'holy' and 'sacred'. Hope is possibly the antithesis of Rage, as Hope is believing in many possibilities while Rage is believing in only one. Jake states that 'friendship is a huge key to being good at hope'. The known Heroes of Hope are Jake, the Page of Hope, Eridan, the Prince of Hope, and Cronus, the Bard of Hope.
The aspect of Doom seems to have a special place in the troll's session. Doom is death, the antithesis of Life. Duh. Heroes of Doom seem to have an extra sense for bad things to come, regardless of their class. Doom might also refer to sacrifice as both Heroes of Doom sacrificed themselves to save their team; Sollux sacrificing himself to get his team to the Green Sun and Mituna sacrificing himself to save everyone from an unknown danger. Based on Sollux, they might have an affinity for rules and knowing how the game works. This could of course just be Sollux's class talking though. The Heroes of Doom may also have two dreamselves, however that's just a theory since it could just be the Captors. The known Heroes of Doom are Sollux, the Mage of Doom, and Mituna, the Heir of Doom.
Life always seems like a good aspect to have. I'm going to assume that I don't have to tell you what it means. The Heroes of Life's abilities naturally include resurecting people. Jane's dreamself comes back to Life after being stabbed, and a Feferi from an offshoot timeline manages to bring the Mayor back to Life in a dream bubble despite being dead. Also, as Doom has an understanding of rules, Life bends those rules as far as they will go without breaking them. Again, Feferi is a wonderful example of this. She is dead but can bring someone back to Life. That just doesn't make sense but she does it anyways! With this in mind, it would mean that Life players would know those unsaid rules as well. And then just ignore them. Cause that's fun. The known Heroes of Life are Jane, the Maid of Life, Feferi, the Witch of Life, and Meenah, the Thief of Life.
A rather interesting aspect is Blood. Blood does not have a clear cut meaning, or even abilities for that matter. One speculation though is unity. This would explain Karkat's ability to unite the troll's despite their differences. Neither Karkat nor Kankri ever reached their full potential as Blood players, however, the Signless
Now for the last known aspect, Breath! Breath is the antithesis to Blood as it is connected to direction. It might also be related to movement and rising up as well. Breath players have several powers including the Windy Thing that John does. This would include being able to turn into wind and flying, which is pretty awesome. I'm getting tired so I'm ending this thing. The known Heroes of Breath are John, the Heir of Breath, Tavros, the Page of Breath, and Rufioh, the Rogue of Breath.